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How does a dry battery work?
22 February 2018     Electronic Wale

Batteries have the function of storing electricity and discharging when necessary. The electricity generated by the discharge is "direct current", and the electric devices that operate using dry batteries are made to operate with direct current.

In the structure of the dry cell, the cylinder of zinc is a negative pole, the carbon rod in the center and manganese oxide are the positive electrode, and electrons are moved from the minus pole to the plus pole in the reaction of the electrolyte charged inside. Because naturally it does not react with zinc cylinder and carbon rod alone, electrolyte is filled as a material for promoting reaction.

Like a lead storage battery, the electrolyte cannot be put into a watch as a liquid, and it cannot be used as a remote control of a television. The electrolyte filled in the dry battery is soaked in the non-woven fabric to be solidified, and storage, transportation and installation are very simple.

Disassembling the batteries and looking at the electrolyte in them, you can see that powdered solids are contained. Using "dry electrolyte" is derived from dry batteries.

The standard of dry cell batteries, single AAA, single AA ... ... standardizes the capacity and size of batteries. For large-capacity electric appliances, it is possible to operate for a long time efficiently by using single batteries. In the case of miniaturized electric appliances, the operation time is shortened, but by using AAA or AAA batteries, the main body of the device can be made small.

In comparison with Panasonic's alkaline dry batteries, in the case of a single battery the end voltage will be 150 hours after the current of 100 mA, but in the case of the AA battery the end voltage will be about 20 hours with a current of 100 mA. Smaller numbers withstand operation for a long time and are resistant to instantaneous large currents.

As an aside, the manganese dry battery classifies black as super high performance, red as high performance, black as long as it operates on the same manganese dry battery for a long time performance of instantaneous high current flowing becomes high. When using a new battery, red and black are different in performance and should not be mixed.

Manganese batteries are batteries that can supply a voltage of 1.5 V per piece, and are suitable for devices that use minute electric power for a long time, such as television remote control and watch. Conventional unit price is about half the price of alkaline batteries, but now the unit price of alkaline dry batteries has been declining considerably, so no big difference has been felt.

Manganese dry batteries are suitable as electric appliances that operate for a long time with small electric power such as a wall clock and a clock, or dry batteries that are used for instantaneous cases (such as for igniting a gas stove) even when large electric power is required. It is said to be inexpensive in dry batteries.

A manganese dry battery has a carbon rod called a current collector at the center, and it cannot be charged with primary battery using manganese dioxide as a positive electrode active material and zinc as a negative electrode active material and using zinc chloride or ammonium chloride as an electrolytic solution. The positive electrode and the negative electrode are separated from each other by a separator. The carbon rod, the positive electrode, and the negative electrode are covered with an insulating tube, and a metal jacket is applied to the exterior.

Because the property of zinc chloride aqueous solution which is the electrolyte of manganese dry battery is almost neutral, leakage occurs by any chance and even if it comes in contact with the human body, the damage can be kept small. Even if liquid leakage occurs inside the electric device, the powder blows but it is relatively safe without corroding the metal.

The nominal voltage is 1.5 V, and grades are classified into "popular products", "high performance items", and "ultra-high performance items" by discharge characteristics and capacity.

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